Glossary

First Mortgage Conforming Loan Limits

  • The Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) publishes the conforming loan limits annually that apply to all conventional mortgages that are delivered to Fannie Mae, including both the general loan limits and the high-cost area loan limits. High-cost area loan limits vary by geographic location.
  • Buying back mortgage loans allow these agencies to provide a continuous flow of affordable funding to banks that reinvest their money back into more mortgage loans. Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac only buy loans that are conforming, to repackage into the secondary market – effectively decreasing the demand for non-conforming loans.
  • Hawaii Conforming Loan Limits:
Number of Units Conforming Loan Limits
for Hawaii
1 $625,500
2 $800,775
3 $967,950
4 $1,202,925
  • Loans originated on or after October 1, 2011 use the “permanent” high-cost area loan limits established by FHFA under a formula of 115% of the 2010 median home price, up to a maximum of $625,500 for a 1-unit property in the continental U.S.. The high-cost area loan limits are established for each county (or equivalent) and are published on eFannieMae.com. Lenders are responsible for ensuring that the original loan amount of each mortgage loan does not exceed the applicable maximum loan limit for the specific area in which the property is located.

·         High-Cost Area Loan Limits for 2011

Maximum Loan Limits for HCAs for Mortgages Acquired in Calendar Year 2012 and Originated after 9/30/2011 or Prior to 7/1/2007*

Units

Alaska, Guam, Hawaii, and the U.S. Virgin Islands

1

$938,250

2

$1,201,150

3

$1,451,925

4

$1,804,375

Learn more about:

Fannie Mae (FNMA)
Freddie Mac (FHLMC)

 

Jumbo Loans:

  • Jumbo Loans exceed the maximum loan amounts established by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac conventional loan limits. Rates on jumbo loans are typically higher than conforming loans. Jumbo Loans are typically used to buy more expensive homes and high-end custom construction homes.

FHA Loans:

Honolulu FHA mortgage loans are issued by federally qualified lenders and insured by the U.S. Federal Housing Administration, a division of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD).

Honolulu FHA loans are an attractive option, especially for first-time homeowners:

  • Generally easier to qualify for than conventional loans.
  • Lower, flexible down payment requirements.
  • Allows for Streamline Refinance.
FHA guidelines provide substantial credit flexibility and other benefits to borrowers
FHA loans are not credit score driven. Instead, they are written in a way that provides the borrower the benefit of the doubt that there had been, at some point in their past, circumstances beyond their control, and as long as the borrower has recovered from those circumstances in a reasonable manner, they’re generally going to be credit-eligible for an FHA loan. The FHA guidelines are forgiving about circumstances that many other lending programs, including conventional, are not favorable towards.The FHA states that a borrower, recovering from a Chapter 7 bankruptcy, can be eligible for an FHA loan two years after being discharged. An exception can be made after 1 year if the bankruptcy was due to extenuating circumstances that can be documented and are not likely to recur. To be eligible for an FHA loan after a foreclosure, a three-year wait time is required after being discharged. An exception to the 3 year rule can be made if the foreclosure was due to extenuating circumstances that can be documented. If the borrower has filed for a Chapter 13 bankruptcy or is in a consumer credit counseling program (where the borrower has re-established a negotiated repayment term based on their credit items), and has been on the plan for 12 months making consistent payments on time, the borrower will be eligible for an FHA loan
Source of Down Payment Flexibility
An FHA-insured loan allows a wide variety of assets to be used to cover the buyer’s down payment and closing costs. FHA guidelines require a 3.5% minimum investment from the borrower; however, those funds can be from a gift or from a variety of other sources. FHA considers gift funds to be the same as if they were the borrower’s own funds truly seasoned for sixty days in the borrower’s account, or proven to be from other eligible sources.

FHA guidelines also allow fund sources such as mattress money, or lease option credits to be used, as they are lenient about how the borrowers can procure the down payment money. As an added bonus, the FHA is very liberal about what they will let the seller pay in the way of the buyer’s closing costs and pre-paid items. The seller can pay up to 6% in concessions towards the buyer’s closing costs, pre-paids and discount points.

Property Types Allowed
Another advantage of an FHA loan program is the variety of properties that can be used. While FHA Guidelines do require that the property be owner occupied (OO), they do allow you to purchase condos, planned unit developments, manufactured homes, and 1–4 family residences, in which the borrower intends to occupy one part of the multi-unit residence.

Streamline Refinance
FHA loans are eligible for streamlined refinance, a program HUD offers that allows the borrower to easily refinance the loan to reduce their interest rate and lower their monthly payment. As long as they are current on the loan, they are generally eligible for a streamlined refinance with no additional credit, income, or asset documentation required. This feature makes it very easy to refinance an FHA loan.

Learn more about:

HUD in Hawaii

FHA (Federal Housing Administration)
 loans

 

VA Loans:

Designed to offer long-term financing to American veterans, Honolulu VA mortgage loans are issued by federally qualified lenders and are guaranteed by the U.S. Veterans Administration. The VA determines eligibility and issues a certificate to qualifying applicants to submit to their mortgage lender of choice. It is generally easier to qualify for a VA loan than conventional loans.

Here’s how it works:

  • 100% financing without private mortgage insurance or 20% second mortgage.
  • A VA funding fee of 0 to 3.3% (this fee may be financed) of the loan amount is paid to the VA.
  • When purchasing a home, veterans may borrow up to 100% of the sales price or reasonable value of the home, whichever is less.
  • When refinancing a home, veterans may borrow up to 90% of reasonable value in order to refinance where state law allows.

Learn more about:

Veterans Administration (Home Loans)

 

USDA Rural Housing Loan Program:

The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) offers a variety of programs to help low to moderate-income individuals living in small towns or rural areas achieve homeownership. The Rural Housing Services (RHS) helps qualifying applicants, who cannot receive credit from other sources, purchase modestly priced homes as their primary residence.

USDA Rural Development Loans are an attractive option because:

  • Minimal closing cost
  • Low or no down payment

USDA Rural Development loans can be used toward the purchase and renovation of a previously owned home or a new construction. Families must be able to pay their monthly mortgage, homeowner’s insurance and property taxes.

Learn more about:

USDA Rural Development Loans

 

Hawaii State and City & County Housing Programs:

Many state, county and local government programs offer financing for qualifying low-to-moderate income families wishing to purchase their first home. Loan assistance programs like Mortgage Credit Certificate (MCC) offer a partial tax credit for interest on the loan.

These programs typically offer:

  • More relaxed qualifying guidelines
  • Lower upfront fees
  • Lower interest rate
  • Fixed rate

We offer the following program(s).

Learn more about:

Mortgage Credit Certificate (MCC)

 

Portfolio (B/C) Loans:

Portfolio Loans do not meet the credit requirements of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. They are known as B or C paper loans. Loan applicants typically have a bad credit history, have filed for bankruptcy, or have had a property in foreclosure.

B/C Loans are often issued as temporary loans until the applicant can restore credit and qualify for conforming “A” loans. Interest rates on B/C Loans are generally higher than for conforming “A” loans.

 

Fixed Rate Mortgage:

With a fixed rate mortgage, the interest rate does not change for the term of the loan, so the monthly payment is always the same. Typically, the shorter the loan period, the more attractive the interest rate will be.

Payments on fixed-rate fully amortizing loans are calculated so that the loan is paid in full at the end of the term. In the early amortization period of the mortgage, a large percentage of the monthly payment pays the interest on the loan. As the mortgage is paid down, more of the monthly payment is applied toward the principal.

A 30 year fixed rate mortgage is the most popular type of loan when borrowers are able to lock into a low rate.

Benefits:

  • Lower monthly payments than a 15 year fixed rate mortgage
  • Interest rate does not go up if interest rates go up
  • Payment does not go up, it stays the same for 30 years

Drawbacks:

  • Higher interest rate than a 15 year fixed rate mortgage
  • Interest rate stays the same even if interest rates go down

A 15 year fixed rate mortgage allows you to pay off your loan quicker and lock into an attractive lower interest rate.

Benefits:

  • Lower interest rate
  • Build equity faster
  • If interest rates go up, yours is fixed

Drawbacks:

  • Higher monthly payment stays the same if interest rates go down
  • Interest rate stays the same even if interest rates go down

Fixed Rate mortgages are typically available in 40, 30, 20, 15 and 10 year terms.


Adjustable Rate Mortgage (ARM):

An ARM is a mortgage with an interest rate that may vary over the term of the loan — usually in response to changes in the prime rate or Treasury Bill rate. The purpose of the interest rate adjustment is primarily to bring the interest rate on the mortgage in line with market rates.

Mortgage holders are protected by a ceiling, or maximum interest rate, which can be reset annually. ARMs typically begin with more attractive rates than fixed rate mortgages — compensating the borrower for the risk of future interest rate fluctuations.

Choosing an ARM is a good idea when:

  • Interest rates are going down
  • You intend to keep your home less than 5 years

ARMs have the following distinguishing features:

  • Index
  • Margin
  • Adjustment Frequency
  • Initial Interest Rate
  • Interest Rate Caps
  • Convertibility

Index

An adjustable rate mortgage’s interest rate increases and decreases based on publicly published indexes. ARMS are based on different indexes including:

  • United States Treasury Bills (T-bills)
  • The 11th District Cost of Funds Index (COFI)
  • London Interbank Offering Rate Index (LIBOR)
  • Certificate of Deposit Indexes (CODI)
  • 12-Month Treasury Average (MTA or MAT)
  • Cost of Savings Index (COSI)
  • Bank Prime Loan (Prime Rate)

Margin

Margin is a fixed percentage amount that is pointed added to the index – accounting for the profit the lender makes on the loan. Margins are fixed for the term of the loan.

interest rate = index + margin

 

Adjustment Frequency

Adjustment frequency reflects how often the interest rate changes – also known as the reset date. Most ARMs adjust yearly, but some ARMs adjust as often as once a month or as infrequently as every five years.

Initial Interest Rate

The initial interest rate is the interest rate paid until the first reset date. The initial interest rate determines your initial monthly payment, which the lender may use to qualify you for a loan. Often the initial interest rate is less than the sum of the current index plus margin so your interest rate and monthly payment will probably go up on the first reset date.

Interest Rate Caps

Interest rate caps put limits on interest rates and monthly payments.

Common caps:

Initial Adjustment Cap

An initial adjustment cap limits how much the interest rate can change at the first adjustment period.

Example:

If your ARM has a 1% initial adjustment cap, your interest rate may only increase or decrease by a maximum of 1% at the first adjustment period.

Periodic Adjustment Cap

A periodic adjustment cap limits how much your interest rate can change from one adjustment period to the next. Usually a six-month adjustable rate mortgage will have a one percent periodic adjustment cap while a one-year adjustable rate mortgage will have a two percent periodic adjustment cap.

Example:

If your loan has a 2% periodic adjustment cap, your interest rate may only increase or decrease by a maximum of 2% per adjustment period.

Lifetime Cap

A lifetime cap sets the maximum and minimum interest rate that you may be charged for the life of the loan. Most ARMs have caps of 5% or 6% above the initial interest rate.

Example:

If your loan has a 6% lifetime cap, your interest rate may only increase or decrease by a maximum of 6% for the life of the loan.

Initial adjustment caps, periodic adjustment caps, and lifetime caps make up an adjustable rate mortgage’s cap structure, and are usually represented as three numbers:

Example:

1/2/6 — Initial adjustment cap is 1 %/ periodic cap is 2% / lifetime cap is 6%.

 

Negatively Amortizing Loans

Because Negatively Amortizing Loans provide payments caps instead of interest rate caps, they limit the amount the monthly payment can increase. However, there is a risk interest rates could potentially escalate to a point where the monthly payment would not cover the interest being charged. If this scenario were to occur, the extra interest charges would be added to the principle of the loan, resulting in the borrower owing more than was initially borrowed. Borrowers are usually allowed to make payments over the loan amount to pay down the mortgage and guard against this scenario.

There are certain times when having a negatively amortizing mortgage could be beneficial. If a borrower were to lose a job or have an unexpected financial emergency a negative amortization option could ease cash flow situation. However, this should only be used as a short-term solution.

 

Option ARM loans

Option ARM loans allow the borrower to choose the amount to pay toward the mortgage each month. Make a minimum payment, interest-only payment, 30-year amortized payment or 15-year amortized payment. Pay the minimum amount to free up funds for other uses, or make larger payments for faster equity build up. Option Arms offer much more cash flow flexibility but must be used wisely by the borrower. Always consult a qualified loan officer to learn about all of the risks associated with these types of loans. He or she will also be able to offer valuable advice on properly managing your monthly payments.

 

Hybrid ARMs:

A combination of fixed rate and adjustable rate loans:

Fixed-Period ARMs

Borrows often lock into 3 to 10 years of fixed rate payments before the initial interest rate change. At the end of the fixed period, the interest rate adjusts annually. Fixed-period ARMs are typically tied to the one-year Treasury securities index: 3/1, 5/1, 7/1 and 10/1.

ARMs with an initial fixed period beside of lifetime and adjustment caps usually have also first adjustment cap. It limits the interest rate you will pay the first time your rate is adjusted. First adjustment caps vary with type of loan program.

The advantage of these loans is that the interest rate is lower than for a 30-year fixed (the lender is not locked in for as long so their risk is lower and they can charge less) but you still get the advantage of a fixed rate for a period of time.

Balloon Loan

Balloon Loans offer a fixed rate for a specified time period, typically 5 or 7 years, and then adjust to the current market rate. After the adjustment the mortgage stays at the new fixed rate for the remainder of the loan period.

Graduated Payment ARMs

Graduated payment mortgages initially offer lower payments at the start of the loan that gradually increase at preset times. Lower initial payments allow borrowers to qualify for a larger loan amount. Loan amounts negatively amortize during the early years of the loan then pay off the principal at an accelerated rate through the later years.

GPM payment plans will vary by rate of payment increases and number of years over which payments will increase. The greater the rate of increase, or the longer the period of increase — the lower the initial mortgage payments.

Convertible ARMs

If an adjustable rate mortgage is convertible, the borrower may convert to a fixed rate mortgage, when interest rates begin to rise, without refinancing. The new rate is established at the current market rate for fixed-rate mortgages. The terms of convertibility vary among lenders. Typically it involves a nominal fee and minimal paperwork. The downside is that the conversion interest rate is often a little higher than the market rate at the time of conversion.

A fixed rate loan with a rate reduction option allows borrowers, under predetermined conditions, to adjust to the current market rate for a nominal fee. The discount points or interest rates are often slightly higher for convertible loans.

Buydown Mortgage

A temporary buydown initially offers a lower interest rate and lower monthly payments. In order to reduce monthly payments during the first years, borrowers make an initial lump sum payment or agree to a higher interest rate. Over the years, the interest rate gradually increases until it peaks at a fixed rate. Borrowers who chose this loan often expect a significant increase in their income.

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